What are Cloud-Native Applications?
Cloud-native is an approach to building and running applications that exploits the advantages of the cloud computing model. The cloud has redefined the competitive landscape across virtually all industries by eliminating the focus on capital investment and staff to run an enterprise data center, replacing it with limitless computing power on-demand and pay-as-you-go. Reduced IT spend means a lower barrier to entry with competitive advantage becoming a function of the speed teams can bring new ideas to market, which is why software is eating the world and startups are using cloud-native approaches to disrupt traditional industries.
Yet organizations require a platform for building and operating cloud-native applications and services that automates and integrates the concepts of DevOps, continuous delivery, microservices, and containers:
“Cloud native is structuring teams, culture, and technology to utilize automation and architectures to manage complexity and unlock velocity.”
Co-Founder, Kubernetes and Principal Engineer, VMware
Watch Joe talk about Kubernetes
DevOps is the collaboration between software developers and IT operations with the goal of automating the process of software delivery and infrastructure changes. It creates a culture and environment where building, testing and releasing software can happen rapidly, frequently, and more reliably.
Continuous Delivery makes an individual application change ready for release as soon as it is ready, without waiting for bundling with other changes into a release or an event such as a maintenance window. Continuous delivery makes the act of releasing dull and reliable, so organizations can deliver frequently, at less risk, and get feedback faster from end users until deployment becomes an integral part of the business process and enterprise competitiveness.
Microservices is an architectural approach to developing an application as a collection of small services; each service implements business capabilities, runs in its own process and communicates via an HTTP API. Each microservice can be deployed, upgraded, scaled, and restarted independent of other services in the application, typically as part of an automated system, enabling frequent updates to live applications without impacting end customers.
Containers offer both efficiency and speed compared with standard virtual machines (VMs). Using operating system (OS)-level virtualization, a single OS instance is dynamically divided among one or more isolated containers, each with a unique writable file system and resource quota. The low overhead of creating and destroying containers combined with the high packing density in a single VM makes containers the perfect compute vehicle for deploying individual microservices.
“One of the things we've learned is that if you can't get it to market more quickly, there is no doubt that the market will have changed and no matter how well you've engineered it or built it or deployed it or trained your folks, it's not going to be quite right because it's just a little too late.“
Executive VP and CIO, Liberty Mutual Insurance Group
Why Cloud-Native Applications Matter
Cloud-native applications are purpose built for the cloud model. These applications—built and deployed in a rapid cadence by small, dedicated feature teams to a platform that offers easy scale-out and hardware decoupling—offer organizations greater agility, resilience, and portability across clouds.
Cloud is a competitive advantageCloud-native means switching up cloud goals from IT cost savings to the engine of business growth. In the age of software, businesses that can quickly build and deliver applications in response to customer needs will dominate their industries. Once delivered, applications must run as always-on, elastic-scale services.
FlexibilityEnterprises can build applications that will run on any cloud without modification. Teams can retain the ability to migrate or distribute applications across multiple cloud vendors and a private cloud to match their own business priorities and to optimize cloud pricing.
Lets developers do their best workTeams embracing cloud-native applications insulate their developers from the overhead of writing code to run and scale across a range of diverse cloud infrastructures and let them focus on writing code that delivers customer value. Twelve-factor apps on standardized developer stacks, calling on a standard set of services, provide a standard developer ‘contract’ to ensure their applications take full advantage of the underlying cloud-native platform.
Align operations with the businessBy automating IT operations, enterprises can transform into a lean, focused team aligned with driving business priorities. They can eliminate the risk of failure due to human error as staff focus on process improvement in place of routine, mundane admin tasks. With automated live patching and upgrades at all levels of the stack, they eliminate downtime and the need for ops experts with ‘hand-me-down’ expertise.
Cloud-Native Versus Traditional Enterprise Applications
Traditional Enterprise Applications
|Predictable. Cloud-native applications conform to a framework or “contract” designed to maximize resilience through predictable behaviors. The highly automated, container-driven infrastructure used in cloud platforms drives the way software is written. A good example of such a “contract” is illustrated by the 12 principles first documented as the twelve factor app.||Unpredictable. Traditional applications can’t realize all of the benefits of running on a cloud-native platform due to the way they’re architected or developed. This type of application often takes longer to build, is released in big batches, can only scale gradually, and has more single points of failure.|
|OS abstraction. Cloud-native application architecture requires developers to use a platform as a means for abstracting away from underlying infrastructure dependencies to enable simple migration and scaling of the application. The most efficient means of abstraction is a formalized platform, for example, VMware Tanzu which is ideal for operating on cloud-based infrastructure such as Google Cloud Platform (GCP), Microsoft Azure, or Amazon Web Services (AWS).||OS dependent. Traditional application architecture allows developers to build close dependencies between the application and underlying OS, hardware, storage, and backing services. These dependencies make migrating and scaling the application across new infrastructure complex and risky, working against the cloud model.|
|Right-sized capacity. A cloud-native application platform automates infrastructure provisioning and configuration, dynamically allocating and reallocating resources at deploy time based on the ongoing needs of the application. Building on a cloud-native runtime optimizes application lifecycle management, including scaling to meet demand, resource utilization, orchestration across available resources, and recovery from failures to minimize downtime.||Over-sized capacity. Traditional IT designs a dedicated, custom infrastructure solution (“snowflake”) for an application, delaying deployment of the application. The solution is often over-sized based on worst-case capacity estimates with little capability to scale beyond to meet demand.|
|Collaborative. Cloud-native facilitates DevOps, a combination of people, process, and tools, resulting in a close collaboration between development and operations functions to speed and smooth the transfer of finished application code into production.||Siloed. Traditional IT operates an ‘over the wall’ handoff of finished application code from developers to operations, which then runs it in production. Organizational priorities take precedence over customer value, resulting in internal conflict, slow and compromised delivery and poor staff morale.|
|Continuous delivery. IT teams make individual software updates available for release as soon as they are ready. Organizations that release software rapidly get a tighter feedback loop and can respond more effectively to customer needs. Continuous delivery works best with other related approaches including test-driven development and continuous integration.||Waterfall development. IT teams release software periodically, typically weeks or months apart, when code has been built into a ‘release’ despite the fact that many of the components of the release are ready earlier and have no dependency other than the artificial release vehicle. Features that customers want or need are delayed and the business misses opportunities to compete, win customers, and grow revenue.|
|Independent. Microservices architecture decomposes applications into small, loosely coupled independently operating services. These services map to smaller, independent development teams and make possible frequent, independent updates, scaling, and failover/restart without impacting other services.||Dependent. Monolithic architectures bundle many disparate services into a single deployment package causing unnecessary dependencies between services and leading to a loss of agility during development and deployment.|
|Automated scalability. Infrastructure automation at scale eliminates downtime due to human error. Computer automation faces no such challenge, consistently applying the same set of rules across any size of deployment. Cloud-native also goes beyond the ad-hoc automation built on top of traditional virtualization-oriented orchestration. A fully cloud-native architecture includes automation and orchestration that works for teams instead of requiring them to write automations as custom recipes. In other words, the automation makes it easy to build and run applications that can be easily managed.||Manual scaling. Manual infrastructure includes human operators that manually craft and manage server, network, and storage configurations. At scale, operators are slow to correctly diagnose issues and easily fail to correctly implement at scale due to the level of complexity. Hand-crafted automation recipes have the potential to hard-code human errors into the infrastructure.|
|Rapid recovery. The container runtime and orchestrator provides a dynamic, high-density virtualization overlay on top of a VM, ideally matched to hosting microservices. Orchestration dynamically manages placement of containers across a cluster of VMs to provide elastic scaling and recovery/restart in the event of failure.||Slow recovery. VM-based infrastructure is a slow and inefficient foundation for microservice-based applications because individual VMs are slow to startup/shutdown and come with large overhead even before deploying application code to them.|
Cloud-Native Apps and VMware
Perspektiven für VMware-Teams
Purpose-built for the cloud model, cloud-native applications enable smaller teams across organizations to deploy and deliver software faster. From retailers and manufacturers to healthcare and financial services organizations, IT teams are exploring cloud-native applications for greater agility.
Thoughts about Cloud-Native
Growing interest in cloud-native is prompting organizations looking to speed time to market to better understand cloud-native goals, best practices, optimal organizational structures, and the technologies fully automating application stack infrastructure layers.
Cloud-Native Blueprints for Banking
Running IT for a bank is not easy. The job requires creativity, agility, pragmatism, and grit. After all, bank IT teams must navigate generational changes from rising consumer expectations and fintech competition to regulatory compliance & security. Organizations are capitalizing on these shifts and gaining market share by becoming cloud-native.
Step-by-Step: The Journey to Cloud-Native
Modernizing an application portfolio can be challenging. Before beginning, there are four things every business on a journey to cloud-native needs to know.
How Organizations Should Think About Cloud-Native Java
Application platforms play a critical role in supporting cloud-native endeavors. Any business considering cloud-native should understand what it means and why IT staff should consider this paradigm as the way forward for an architecture strategy.