Pivotal Greenplum Database® is an advanced, fully featured, open source data warehouse. Greenplum provides powerful and rapid analytics on petabyte scale data volumes.
PXF is a query federation engine that accesses data residing in external systems such as Hadoop, Hive, HBase, relational databases through JDBC, S3, Google Cloud Storage, among other external systems.
In this post we will show how to optimize transferring 50GB of data between two Greenplum clusters. First, we will transfer data without any partitioning strategy. Without partitioning, only a single segment will be accessing data from the second Greenplum cluster. Later, we will add a partition strategy and transfer data in parallel from the external Greenplum cluster. We will show 6X speedups when using a partitioning strategy to transfer data between the two Greenplum clusters.
PXF JDBC Read Partitioning
The PXF JDBC connector can read data in parallel from an external SQL table by creating sub-queries that retrieve a subset of data. A PXF cluster can read data in parallel by issuing sub-queries concurrently to the external database.
To obtain optimal performance a the partition column needs to be identified. One
should choose a partition column that can take advantage of concurrent reads.
For example, in Oracle a partitioning key column can be used. In Greenplum we
can take advantage of the special column
gp_segment_id to take advantage
of parallel reads. When using
gp_segment_id in Greenplum, each segment will
only scan its own data, and then hand off that data to master.
PXF JDBC Read Partitioning can significantly speed up access to external database tables, speeding up data querying or data loading.
PXF supports three types of partitions: INT, DATE, and ENUM.
1. INT Partition
This partition type is intended for numeric columns. The columns do not necessarily
have to be integer, but the partition range has to be numeric. For example,
&PARTITION_BY=year:int&RANGE=2011:2013&INTERVAL=1 will generate the following
sub-queries to the external database:
WHERE year < 2011
WHERE year >= 2011 AND year < 2012
WHERE year >= 2012 AND year < 2013
WHERE year >= 2013
WHERE year IS NULL
Each sub-query will be processed by a different PXF thread, and possibly by a different PXF server.
2. DATE Partition
Similar to the INT partition, the date partition will generate sub-queries in the
specified interval. For example,
generate the following sub-queries to the external database:
WHERE createdate < '2013-01-01'
WHERE createdate >= '2013-01-01' AND createdate < '2013-02-01'
WHERE createdate >= '2013-02-01' AND createdate < '2013-03-01'
WHERE createdate >= '2013-03-01'
WHERE createdate IS NULL
3. ENUM Partition
The enum partition will generate partitions given the discrete values provided.
&PARTITION_BY=color:enum&RANGE=red:yellow:blue will generate
the following sub-queries to the external database:
WHERE color = 'red'
WHERE color = 'yellow'
WHERE color = 'blue'
WHERE color <> 'red' AND color <> 'yellow' AND color <> 'blue'
WHERE color is NULL
Please refer to the PXF JDBC official documentation for more information.
For the experiment we have two Greenplum clusters, let’s call them
cluster1 has about
50GB of TPC-H lineitem data, and
cluster2 is empty.
We will transfer data from
cluster2 with and without a JDBC
For the experiment we provision two clusters in Google Cloud, with 1 master and
7 segment hosts for each cluster. Each segment host has 4 segments for a total of
28 segments. For the compute instance type we chose
n1-highmen-4 with 100GB of
disk space each. The two clusters are deployed on the same region and the same
This 18 minute video runs through the experiment and shows the results:
External Table DDL without partitioning
CREATE EXTERNAL TABLE lineitem_external (LIKE lineitem) LOCATION('pxf://lineitem?PROFILE=jdbc&SERVER=greenplum') FORMAT 'CUSTOM' (formatter='pxfwritable_import');
External Table DDL partitioned by
CREATE EXTERNAL TABLE lineitem_partitioned (LIKE lineitem) LOCATION('pxf://lineitem?PROFILE=jdbc&PARTITION_BY=gp_segment_id:int&RANGE=0:27&INTERVAL=1&SERVER=greenplum') FORMAT 'CUSTOM' (formatter='pxfwritable_import');
With partitioning, the PXF JDBC connector will issue 31 queries to
WHERE gp_segment_id < 0
WHERE gp_segment_id >= 0 AND gp_segment_id < 1
WHERE gp_segment_id >= 26 AND gp_segment_id < 27
WHERE gp_segment_id >= 27
WHERE gp_segment_id IS NULL
When using the PXF JDBC connector, consider using a partitioning strategy when reading data from an external database into Greenplum. A good partitioning strategy will produce transfer speedups and increase overall performance on JDBC reads using PXF. To choose a good partitioning strategy you need to take into account how data is stored on the external database. In our experiment above, we took advantage of Greenplum’s distribution policy by issuing one query per segment, and each segment was accessing its own data. We saw a 6X transfer speedup by utilizing this strategy. In other databases, for example Oracle, you can use a different criteria such as data partitions, to speed up your reads.